Articles on the Libyan Desert

Most of the exploration of the Libyan Desert took place in the late twenties & early thirties, and most material, as well as a few recent accounts were published in the Geographical Journal, published by the Royal Geographical Society. A few articles on rock art appeared in Antiquity, and Hassanein's epic jopurney was also published in The National Geographic Magazine, together with all photos contained in his book. A few articles on the southern part of the Libyan Desert appeared in Sudan Notes & Records. Prince Kemal el Din published exclusively in french, his articles appeared in the early-mid twenties in La Geographie ( "L'exploration du desert de Libye", Vol:50 (1928), pp:171-183 and 320-336), Revue Scientifique Illustre, and the obscure Bulletin de la Societe Royale Geographique de l'Egypte. The results of the Belgian Scientific Mission to Jebel Uweinat in 1968/69 were published in a special issue of Africa Tervuren, Vol: XV, 1969/4 (mainly in french, some articles in flemish). Much of recent research on rock art and archaeology is published in Sahara, founded in 1988.
Geographical Journal

BAGNOLD, R.A., "Journeys in the Lybian Desert 1929 and 1930", Vol:78 (1931), pp:13-39

BAGNOLD, R.A., "A further journey through the Lybian Desert", Vol:82 (1933), pp:103-129

BAGNOLD, R.A., "The last of the Zerzura legend", Vol:89 (1937), pp:265-268

BAGNOLD, R.A., O.H. Myers, R.F. Peel, H.A. Winkler, "An Expedition to the Gilf Kebir and Uweinat, 1938", Vol:93 (1939), pp:281-313

BAGNOLD, R.A., "Early Days of the Long Range Desert Group", Vol:105 (1945), pp:30-46

BALL, John, "Note on the cartographical results of Hassanien Bey's Journey", Vol:64 (1924), pp:367-388

BALL, John, "Problems of the Lybian Desert", Vol:70 (1927), pp:21-38; 105-128; 209-224

BALL, John, "Remarks on "Lost" Oases of the Lybian Desert", Vol:72 (1928), pp:244-249

el BAZ, Faruk et al., "Journey to the Gilf Kebir and Uweinat, Southwest Egypt, 1978", Vol:146 (1980), pp:51-99

BEADNELL, H.J.L., "The Sand-dunes of the Lybian Desert", Vol:25 (1910), pp:379-395

BEADNELL, H.J.L., "Zerzura", Vol:77 (1931), pp:245-250

BERMANN, Richard., "Historic problems of the Lybian desert", Vol:83 (1934), pp:456-470

CLAYTON, P.A., "The western side of the Gilf Kebir", Vol:81 (1933), pp:254-259

HARDING KING, W.J., "Travels in the Libyan Desert", Vol:39 (1912), pp:133-137;192

HARDING KING, W.J., "The Lybian Desert from native information", Vol:42 (1913), pp:277-283;320

HARDING KING, W.J., "The Farafra Depression and Bu Mungar Hattia", Vol:42 (1913), pp:455-461;516

HARDING KING, W.J., "A Study of a Dune Belt", Vol:51 (1918), pp:17-33;251-258

HARDING KING, W.J., "Lost Oases of the Lybian Desert", Vol:72 (1928), pp:244-249

HARDING KING, W.J., "The Lost Oases", Vol:75 (1930), pp:61-64

HASSANEIN BEY, A.M., "Through Kufra to Darfur", Vol:64 (1924), pp:273-291; 353-393

HAYNES, Vance, "Oyo - A Lost Oasis of the Southern Libyan Desert", Vol:155 (1989), No.2

HUME, W.F., "Conclusions Derived from the Geological Data Collected by Hassanien Bey during his Kufra - Uweinat Expedition", Vol:64 (1924), pp:386-388

JOHNSON, E.A., "Zerzura", Vol:75 (1930), pp:59-61

KÁDÁR, László, "A study of the Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert", Vol:83 (1934), pp:470-478

LANCEY FORTH, N.B. de, "More Journeys in search of Zerzura", Vol:75 (1930), pp:48-59

MOON, F.W., "Notes on the Geology of Hassanien Bey's Expedition, Sollum - Darfur, 1923", The Geographical Journal, Vol:64 (1924), pp:388-393

NEWBOLD, D., "A journey in the south Lybian Desert", Vol:72 (1928), pp:549

NEWBOLD, D., "The Kufara-Egypt Caravan Route", Vol:78 (1931), p.533

PEEL, R.F., "The Tibu peoples and the Lybian Desert", Vol:100 (1942), pp:73-87

PENDEREL, H.W.G.J., "The Gilf Kebir", Vol:83 (1934), pp:449-456

RODD, F.J.R., "A reconnaissance of the Gilf Kebir by the late Sir Robert Clayton East Clayton", Vol:81 (1933), pp:249-254

SANDFORD, K.S., "Past climate and early man in the southern Lybian desert", Vol:82 (1933), pp:219-222

SANDFORD, K.S., "Geology and geomorphology of the southern Lybian Desert", Vol:82 (1933), pp:213-219

SANDFORD, K.S., "The Wadi Hawa", Vol:85 (1935), pp:412

SHAW, W.B. Kennedy, "International boundaries of Libya", Vol:85 (1935), pp:50-53

SHAW, W.B. Kennedy, "An expedition in the southern Lybian desert", Vol:87 (1936), pp:193-221

WILLIAMS, M.A.J., D.N. Hall, "Recent Expeditions to Libya from the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst", Vol:131 (1965), pp:482-501

WINGATE, Orde, "In search of Zerzura", Vol:83 (1934), pp:281-308

WRIGHT, J.W., "War time Exploration with the Sudan Defence Force in the Libyan Desert", Vol:105 (1945), pp:100-111


KUPER, Rudolph, "By donkey train to Kufra ? - How Mr Meri went west", Vol:75 (2001), pp:801-802

NEWBOLD, D., "Rock Pictures and Archaeology in the Lybian Desert", Vol:2 (1928), pp:261-291

PEEL, R.F, "Rock-paintings from the Lybian Desert", Vol:13 (1939), pp:389-402

ROE, D.A., J.W. Olsen, J.R. Underwood Jr. and R. Giegenak, "A handaxe of Libyan Desert glass", Vol:56 (1982), pp:406-410

SHAW, W.B. Kennedy, "The Mountain of Uweinat", Vol:8 (1934), pp:63-72

SHAW, W.B. Kennedy, "Rock Paintings in the Lybian Desert", Vol:10 (1936), pp:175-178

National Geographic Magazine

EL-BAZ, Farouk, "Egypt's Western Desert", February, 1982

HASSANEIN BEY, A.M., "Crossing the untraversed Lybian Desert", September, 1924 (Vol:46), pp:233-277

Sudan Notes & Records

ALMÁSY, László, "By Motor Car from Wadi halfa to Cairo", Vol:13 (1930), pp:269-278

ALMÁSY, László, "Bir Bidi", Vol:18 (1933), pp:259-276

BIDI, Awdi, "The Southern Route to Kufra", Vol:5 (1922), pp:130-136

NEWBOLD, D., "A Desert Odyssey of a Thousand Miles", Vol:7 (1924), pp:43-92

NEWBOLD, D., "History and Archaeology of the Libyan Desert", Vol:22 (1945), pp:229-239

NEWBOLD, D., W.B.K. Shaw, "An Exploration in the South Lybian Desert", Vol:11 (1928), pp:103-194

SHAW, W.B.K., "Darb el Arba'in (The Forty Days' Road)",Vol:12 (1929), pp:63-71

Africa Tervuren

LEONARD, J., "Preface", pp:102-104

MISONNE, X., "Historique de l'exploration de Jebel Uweinat", pp:105-108

KLERKX, J., "Geologie", pp:108-110

LEONARD, J., "La flore", pp:110-116

MISONNE, X., "La faune", pp:117-119

HEINZELIN, J. de, P. Haesaerts et F. Van Noten, "Geologie recente et prehistoire au Jebel Uweinat", pp:120-125

MISONNE, X en F. Van Noten, "Die rotsgraveringen en -schilderingen van Uweinat", pp:126-130

PENTINOT, R., "Le role de l'armee belge", pp:131-134


For a complete list of contents of all the issues,
visit the Sahara Journal website.

BARICH, Barbara E. e F.A. Hassan, Il Sahara e le oasi: Farafra nel Deserto Occidentale Egiziano", 3 (1990), pp:53-62

EL BAZ, Farouk, "Aeolian deposits and palaeo-rivers of the eastern Sahara. Significance to archaeology and groundwater exploration", 10 (1998) pp:55-66

BERGER, Friedrich, "Comment on the chronology of rock art in Jebel Uweinat and Gilf Kebir", 12 (2000), pp:181-182

BERGER, Uta and Friedrich, "An unusual stone tool from Wadi Hamra (Gilf Kebir, Egypt)", 12 (2000), pp:168

BERGER, Uta and Friedrich, Tarek el Mahdy and Peter Gaballa, New rock art sites in SE Libya", 14 (2003), pp:132-134

BOCCAZZI, Aldo e Donatella, "Alcuni grafitti della parete occidentale del Gilf Kebir", 1 (1988), pp:96-98

BOCCAZZI, Aldo, Vincenzo de Michele e Giancarlo Negro, "Un'esplorazione geo-archeologica nel Great sand Sea (Egitto)", 4 (1991), pp:89-102

BÖCKLI, Hardy and Mahmoud Marai, "Rock art and vertical transhumance at Jebel Uweinat", 19 (2008), pp:143-146

BORDA, Mark, "A remarkable rock art shelter between Gilf Kebir and Uweinat", 19 (2008), pp:147-148

CLAYTON, Joseph, Aloisa de Trafford and Mark Borda, "A Hieroglyphic Inscription found at Jebel Uweinat mentioning Yam and Tekhebet", 19 (2008), pp:129-134

CLOSE, Angela E., Fred Wendorf and Romuald Schild, "Patterned Use of a Middle Paleolithic Landscape: Bir Tarfawi and Bir Sahara East, Eastern Sahara", 3 (1990), pp:21-34

GATTO, Maria Carmela, "Two Predynastic pottery caches at Bir Sahara (Egyptian Western Desert)", 13 (2001-2002), pp:51-60

FÖRSTER, Frank and Rudolph Kuper, "Abu Ballas (Pottery Hill): Call for Information", 14 (2003), pp:167-168

GAUTHIER, Yves and Giancarlo Negro, "Magharat el-kantara (Shaw's Cave) revisite: art rupstre du sud Gilf Kebir (Egypte de sud-ouest)", 9 (1997), pp:124-133

GAUTIER, Achilles, Romuald Schild, Fred Wendorf and Thomas W. Stafford Jr., "One elephant doesn't make a savanna. Paleoecological significance of Loxodonta africana in the Holocene Sahara", 6 (1994), pp:7-20

KRÖPELIN, Stefan, "New petroglyph sites in the Southern Libyan Desert (Sudan-Chad)", 15 (2004), pp:111-117

LEMARIE, André et Giancarlo Negro, "Inscription araméenne dans l’abri du Wadi Sura et nord-arabique ŕ l’oasis de Baharieh (Égypte)?", 12 (2000), pp:170-174

DI LERNIA, Savino, Lucia More and Andrea Zerboni, "Geo-archaeological survey in the Kufra Region (Eastern Sahara, SE Libya)", 19 (2008), pp:7-26

MCDONALD, M.M.A., "Origins of the Neolithic in the Nile Valley as seen from dakhleh Oasis in the Egyptian Western Desert", 4 (1991), pp:41-52

MENARDI NOGUERA, Alessandro, Paolo Carmignoto, Stefano Laberio Minozzi, Francesco Romanzi, Giannantonio Schirato, Michele Soffiantini, Tiziana Tormena, "New rock art sites in the southwestern sector of Jebel Uweinat (Libya), 16 (2005), pp:107-120

MENARDI NOGUERA, Alessandro Menardi, Stefano Laberio Minozzi and Michele Soffiantini, "Old tracks and rock art sites on the Emeri Highland, Jebel Uweinat (Libya)", 18 (2007), pp:47-68

MENARDI NOGUERA, Alessandro Menardi and Michele Soffiantini, "The rock art sites of the upper Wadi Waddan (Jebel Uweinat, Libya)", 19 (2008), pp:109-128

DE MICHELE, Vincenzo, "The Libyan Desert Glass scarab in Tutankhamen’s pectoral", 10 (1998), pp:107-109

MORELLI, Marco, Alessandra Buzzigoli e Giancarlo Negro, "Segnalazione di nuovi siti d'arte rupestre nel Great Sand Sea egiziano, 17 (2006), pp:177-182

NEGRO, Giancarlo, "Il Great Sand Sea e la sua esplorazione (Sud-ovest dell'Egitto)", 4 (1991), pp:71-88

NEGRO, Giancarlo, "Due nuove stazioni d'arte rupestre di probabile eta epipaleolitica nell'area dell'Uadi Hamra, Gilf Kebir (Sud-ovest dell'Egitto)", 7 (1995), pp:51-68

NEGRO, Giancarlo e Maurizio Damiano-Appia "Il Silica Park: un centro di lavorazione del LDSG nel Great Sand Sea", 5 (1992-1993), pp:105-108

PETERS, Joris, "The paleoenvironment of the Gilf Kebir - Jebel Uweinat area during the first half of the Holocene: The latest evidence", 1 (1988), pp:73-76

RIEMER,Heiko and Rudolph Kuper, "Clayton rings: enigmatic ancient pottery from the Eastern Sahara", 12 (2000) pp:91-100

RIEMER,Heiko, "Holocene game drives in the Great Sand Sea of Egypt ? Stone structures and their archaeological evidence", 15 (2004) pp:31-42

LE QUELLEC, Jean-Loďc, "Reconnaissance ŕ Awenât Les figurations rupestres de Karkűr Drîs et Karkűr Ibrahîm (Libye)", 10 (1998) pp:67-84

SCHILD, Romuald, Mieczyslaw F. Pazdur, Fred Wendorf and Halina Krolik, "Conventional radiocarbon chronology in the Sahara. Beware of fossil fuel.", 8 (1996), pp:67-70

WENDORF, Fred, Angela E. Close and Romuald Schild, "Megaliths in the Egyptian Sahara", 5 (1992-1993), pp:7-16

ZBORAY, András, "New rock art findings at Jebel Uweinat and the Gilf Kebir", 14 (2003), pp:111-127

ZBORAY, András, "Rock art finds on the "Hassanein Plateau", Jebel Uweinat", 15 (2004), pp:134-136

ZBORAY, András, "New rock art finds in Wadi Wahesh (Jebel Uweinat)", 16 (2005), pp:165-168

ZBORAY, András, "A shelter with paintings of the "Uweinat roundhead" style in upper Karkur Talh (Jebel Uweinat)", 17 (2006), pp:163-164

ZBORAY, András, Jon Hales, Liz Hales, Magdolna Juridesz, "Winkler’s Site 75 revisited (Karkur Murr, Jebel Uweinat)", 18 (2007), pp:174-177

ZBORAY, András, "Some further rock art finds at Jebel Uweinat and the Gilf Kebir", 19 (2008), pp:149-154

Other Recent Articles

Note: Many recent papers and articles are listed in the contents of compilations in the Books section.

BERGER, Uta & Friedrich, "Ein neuer Felsbildfund im Wadi Hamra (Gilf Kebir, Ägypten)", Almogaren, XXX, pp:203-220

BERGER, Uta & Friedrich, Tarek El-Mahdy, "Report on a journey to the Northern part of Gilf Kebir, SW Egypt, February/March 2001", Les Cahiers de l'AARS, No 8. (August 2003), pp:19-22

CLASSEN, Erich, Karin Kindermann and Andreas Pastoors, "Djara - Cave Art in Egypt's Western Desert", Archeo-Nil 19 (2009), pp:47-66

EL-BAZ, Faruk, "Circular Feature Among Dunes of the Great Sand Sea,Egypt", Science, Vol:213 (24.July 1981), pp:439-440

GAUTHIER, Yves and Giancarlo Negro, "Noveaux doduments rupestres des environs du Wadi Sura (Gilf Kebir, S.-O. de l'Egypte)", Bulletin de la Societe d'etudes et de recherches prehistoriques des EYZIES, No. 48 (1999), pp:62-79

HOBLER, P.M. and J.J. Hester, "Prehistory and Environment in the Lybian Desert", South African Archaeological Bulletin, Vol:33 (1969), pp:120-130

KRÖPELIN, S., "Paleoclimatic evidence from early to mid-holocene playas in the Gilf Kebir", Paleoecology of Africa, Vol:18 (1987), pp:189-208

MANLIUS, Nicolas, Alessandro Menardi-Noguera and Andras Zboray, "Decline of the Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) in Egypt during the 20th century: literature review and recent observations, Journal of Zoology, 259 (2003), pp: 403-409

MCHUGH, William P., "Late Prehistoric Cultural Adaptation in Southwest Egypt and the Problem of the Nilotic Origins of Saharan Cattle Pastoralism", Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol:11 (1974), pp:9-22

MCHUGH, William P., "Some Archaeological results of the Bagnold-Mond expedition to the Gilf Kebir and Gebel Uweinat, Southern Lybian Desert", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol:34 (1975), pp:31-62

PACHUR, H.J., S. Kropelin, "Wadi Howar: paleoclimatic evidence from an extinct river system in the southeastern Sahara", Science, Vol:237 (1987), pp:298-300

LE QUELLEC, Jean-Loïc, "Les images rupestres du Jebel el 'Uweynat", Archeo-Nil 19 (2009), pp:12-26

RIEMER, Heiko, "Prehistoric Rock Art Research in the Western Desert of Egypt", Archeo-Nil 19 (2009), pp:31-46

SCHÖN, Werner, "The Late Neolithic of Wadi el Akhdar (Gilf Kebir) and the Eastern Sahara", Archéologie du Nil moyen, Vol. 6, (1994), pp:131-175

WENDORF, Fred, et al., "Egyptian Prehistory: Some new concepts", Science, Vol:169 (1970), pp:1161-1171

WENDORF, Fred, et al., "The Prehistory of the Egyptian Sahara", Science, Vol:193 (1976), pp:103-114

ZBORAY, András, "Some results of recent expeditions to the Gilf Kebir and Jebel Uweinat", Les Cahiers de l'AARS, No 8. (August 2003), pp:97-104

ZBORAY, András, "The rock art of Jebel Uweinat. Some results of the ongoing survey", Archeo-Nil 19 (2009), pp:27-30

ZBORAY, András, "A revision of the identified prehistoric rock art styles of the central Libyan Desert (Eastern Sahara) and their relative chronology ", in HUYGE, Dirk (ed.), Proceedings of the International Colloquium “The Signs of Which Times? Chronological and Palaeoenvironmental Issues in the Rock Art of Northern Africa”, Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences, Bruxelles, 2012 (available as pdf).